ARCH 484_ WEEK 4

In the las week of reading assignments, week we overview “Streets in Urban Design” by Cliff Moughtin, Urban Design, pp. 127- 150.

Cliff moughtin works on urban design and theory. He mostly focused on developing countries. He has 5 important book on urban design which are; Method and Technique, Green Dimensions, Ornament and Decoration, Street and Square.

Moughtin starts to text with the quotation from Vitruvius’s definition of street related with theater. Then continuous with Anthony Vilder’s quotation about how buildings gives character to the street. After that he continuous with the definition of some urban terminologies such as road and street. As a main distinction between them he highlight the  fix destination.

In the part he analysis the function of the street, he stated that street is a legitimate element of civic design. So that ıt should approach the street not only means of access but also an arena for social expression. Ashe pointed out it is not clear that how the physical environment affect the social behaviour  of  public  but in some case  like he examples as ; “In 1940s and a950s it was thought by planners that trough the manipulation of land use patterns and design small neighbourhoods that somehow “ comunnity “ would result.” İt can bring various results.

He believes that the street is a physical element in the city and this is a social fact. It has less tangible function in facilitating communication and interaction between people and groups. Hence, he criticized urban planners for highlighting how important  examine the function and role of street is, while giving form to the important element of city. Then he continuous explaining how interaction of pedestrians and vehicles determined the function of street. Furthermore, he stated that “the successof pedestrian areas is depend on the variety of attacrtions”.

Later on he mentions about the form of the streets and he stated that street can analyse according to its length, width, scale and etc. Then he mentions public  squares and how it occurs.

Then, he says “ the street is something more than a simple pathway, it is a series of connected places, somewhere for staying in and not just for moving trough”. Actually, as he quation form Lynch ideas, the street is a path enlived by series of nodes where other paths meet it or where activities intensify to such an extent that place and rest vie for dominance with function of pathway and movement.

On the last part he discuss the unifying of the street design what are the factors that affects the unification of it and how it should be. For explaining these kind of questions that he lead us to consider, he gives an examples from different places and also by some quations he explains the importance of planing the street as vital part of city.

As a conclusion, ı can say that in all text,  he clearly  stated the importance of street as an urban form that serves public by being vital part of existence of city. And he discuss the term of the street with its importance specialities to explain what is street, how we approach and what we should consider about street while we design.


ARCH 484_ WEEK 3

This week we overview III: “Streets in Architectural History”, Kostof, City Assembled, pp. 213- 243.

We continued to overvied Kostof by stating the part called “ the street as public sapce”. Kostof said that “the only legitimacy of the street is as public space without it, there is no city” and he continued as the street , furthermore, structures community. It puts on display the workings of the city, and supplies as backdrop for its common rituals. Whit explaining the interaction of publicans street as a publicly domain space. He emphasis the function of street as a channel that keep the public flowing.

 Cultural occasions, rituals and classes are formed usage of street and its characteristics. Related with the all political and communal aspect of street there are lots of theatrical occasions occurs. So that he actually call street as a public domain space.

For understanding street history, Kostof focused on few topic which are public health, public regulations of street and traffic. By analysing these topics he clarified the process of street line and street width.  He mentioned safety in terms of building material choices related with fire and public health in the point of canalization and cenetary issues.

In the oncoming chapters he started to giving informations about “the design of street”. He said that the esteticurge express itself in ornamental editions in street space like monuments, fountains, special trees and etc. This chapter firstly focused on streetscapes so that he gives examples of “Cippi”  which is stone in roman times used a s a street marker. Then he said  street is a matter of municipality. With this way there is lotsof typology occurred as a street design trough the history. As he believes so fully uniformity of street frontage was a main preoccupation of urbanism in the Grand manner.

Then he started the discuss about building line and giving example to us to inform. Form his vies, for making of street identity each building must submit to the overall structure beyond its limits because streets are spaces that defines with its lines. Actually as he lead as to think, streets and facade of buildings are always in the relation. Street can not defined without private borders. So that as he said too “ordinary fabric takes from out of more or less contiguous buildings, as if the street carved out of what was once solid mass”.

As summary of design street part ı can say that individual detached units are the corresponding formation of enclosed street spaces so that street  become a combination of well-defined volumes of exterior spaces and corridor of movements.

To addition to design part in the later pages, he gave information about  porticoes, porches, collonade streets,  waterways, sidewalks and many mores. Actually in the all part we overviwed ,basically, he aimed to give details about how street drives trough history what are the streets specialities and how we should approach to street.

ARCH 484_ WEEK 2

This week we overwived “Streets in Architectural History” by Kostof, City Assembled, pp. 189- 212.

Spiro Kostof was an architectural historian was born in İstanbul. He was a professor of architectural history at the University of California at Berkeley, was widely known for his strong oratorical style and famous lectures. He was rejecting the traditional art historian’s method of explaining architecture with a  building typologies, his approach was looking at architecture as a social and political act. His most known book was  “A History of Architecture,”. He also completed a two-volume study of urban form wich are “The City Shaped,” and “The City Assembled.

In introduction he claimed that “the history of street has yet to be written, either as an urban form or an isntitution”. And continues as; “it should, of course, be both”. Then he defines street as ” is an entity made up of a roadway, usually a pedestrian way and flanking buildings. How one of each these is articulated, how they interact, in the ways the design of street walls is controlled and guided these are questions of form pure and simple”. By reading this text as a reader we are starting to consider the street as an urban form or institution like he says. Also further he leads read to questioning street like how it develop,  what it is and how we can define and etc. By his examples and definitions, he answers the questions he leads as well.

According to him every street has economical function and social significance. Traffic exchange, goods exchange and communications can count as  purposes or functions of street as well.  Street itself is an invention, not given.

As he pointed out street remains at staged of constant struggle in between private and public interests.  So that we can say  street is unoccupied ground space that always face with lost of encroachments of surrounding. With these attempts it gains lots of different functions. Hence, there are lots of types of street with different function which he classified as colonnaded avenues, boulevards, alleys, covered streets, Ringstrasse, ceremonial or processional axis, riverside walk and etc.

In the part that we overview was basically related with history of street , private streets and perspective that street as a public space. In each part he gave examples trough history for clearing street from different view of points. With the examples, he pointed out some information about street and clarified how we approach the street.

For example in the” private street ” part, he was given example of London and explain us gated communities. In addition to that he approach the  private usage of street with encroachments and blockage or privatization views.


ARCH 484_ WEEK 1

This week we covered up two texts from Stanford Anderson’s “On streets” which called;

  1. Stanford anderson_ People in the Physical Environment: The Urban ecology of Streets, pp.1-11.
  2. Rykwert ,”The Street”, pp. 14-26.

Anderson was a researcher and writer of  architectural theory. In his studies he focused on early modern architecture in northern Europe, American architecture and urbanism, and epistemology and historiography. He (1934 – 2016) came to MIT in 1963, and was Professor of History and Architecture at the time of his death in January 2016. He was Head of the Department of Architecture from 1991 through 2004, and he was director of MIT’s PhD program in History, Theory and Criticism of Architecture, Art and Urban Form from its founding in 1974 to 1991 and in 1995-96.

In the “People in the Physical Environment: The Urban ecology of Streets” chapter, writer was defining street as an places that public and private meets. While this encounter occurs, there are few factor that affect street which are; economical, social, physical and cultural environment. In this chapter he focused of term of “street” what it means and how it defines. He considers street as boundaries that occurred by social behaviours of society. He is questioning sociology of street and its role in urban life. Related to this he believes that physical environment shaped with people’s interaction. He stated that environment has a various potential that can determined functionality or activity of architecture. He also sated that complex relation with the potential of enviroment can come up various results.  In continuation, he is also clearing  how he defines this environment which  he analyses with tree term which are “Potential Environment”,” Influent Environment”, “Latent Environment”. As a sum up of  this chapter, i can say that  in a theory,  he criticizes where architects should stand when topic comes to urbanization and urban forms in this case “streets” by highlighting its structure in history of architecture and urban life.

In the second chapter, Rykwert discuss the use of street and its historical connection with its usage. Rykwert was a world-leading authority on the history of art and architecture; his groundbreaking ideas and works created a major impact on the thinking of architects since the 1960s. He was a phenomenologist. He concerned the terminology of street. Therefore he investigated street terminology related its historical genesis. He approach street as an analytic diagram of urban function dominated by transportation as his pioneers and many mores. While he pointed out what we should expect from street, he also state that“ street  is human movement that institutionalized”. In addition,  he says the reason of roads and the streets are social institutions, if street is not excepted by community, it wont work. So that for its acceptance, street should consider as social public space. When community accepted these defined spaces, they gave them a name and function so that they becomes streets and roads.

While he was questioning terminology of street and its use, he also pointed out its etymology. As etymologically, street is delimited surface part of an urban texture, characterized by an extended area lined with buildings on either side. But according his approach it is also related Later on, he says street’s functions and relations with urban can analytically diagrammatise and he discuss his analysis trough diagrams and examples as well.

In addition all these,  ı can summarize his general discussion by briefing  his thought about street. He thought that street is a part of urban texture that extended area lined with buildings. In this text by giving examples , quotes, definitions and etc he tries to emphasis the use of street and its basis as it  can also understand from these words of him ; ” a pattern that only consumed, learned and acknowledge by its use”.


Architectural Practice

Architect’s Role in the Society & History of the Profession in Turkey

Presented by: Asst. Prof. Dr. Bilge İmamoğlu

As a continuity of last week’s presentation, we firstly focused on the social and formal legitimacy  that profession has. Actually, social legitimacy is one of the important things for defining profession specially where profession conflicts about it’s limits or boundary of its field.

The main part that focused for this presentation was the history of the profession in Turkey. For understanding the topic  clearly, we start to look at institutions where professionalism born trough history.

1782 was the year that Mühendishane-i Bahri Hümayun was established by Abdulhamit I. The aim of this intuition was deloviping navy and navy yard. Later on this institution turned into İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi which is still one of the lead instution in terms of technical education in Turkey. As an other example, Dar-ül Funun was a more general attempt in Ottoman period for high level of eduction (higher than preliminary or secondary school) rather than military focused institutions. The understand of instution actually start with Abdülhamit and proceed trough history. From inside of various examples, last instution that ı want to mention was Mekteb-i Sanayi-i Nefise-i Şahane (1882) which we called today as Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi. Actually as it can notice there are lots of instutions that first established in late Ottoman period and today still functioning.

Another important thing for profession is chambers and associations. “Türk Yüksek Mimarlar Birliği” or “Mimarlar Derneği” was established in 1927. It is first independent architecture organization in Turkey as well.

Afterwards, Dr. İmamoğlu mentioned about early modern republican period of architecture in Turkey. He explained how architects worked as professions, which architects were outstanding during that important period for architecture in Turkey, what kind of education that they have and what they did for future education system of architecture in Turkey.

Vedat Tek was that we mentioned as one of the  last generation of Ottoman architects. He had builded in early republican period neo-ottoman style buildings such as Ankara palace. After lots of important examples for historical development in architecture in Turkey. He finalized the presentation giving information about Gulio Manger, Bruno Taut and Ernst Egli. These important architects helped the reformation of architecture education and lead modernist approach in Turkish architecture. In this way we reach the today understanding of architecture by examining institutions, leading characters trough history for understanding of developing our profession in Turkey.