This week we assigned to read chapter 13 and 14. This chapters’ name are by fallowing order; “THE BIRTH OF NATIONS: EUROPE AFTER CHARLES” and “FRENCH MANNER”.
In this post, ı am going to share my opinions only about the 13th chapter.
As ı mention previous post of this course, Europinion cultures started to change and also in the same time power balance in Europe had been changing too. Carolingian Europe was the third sphere. Under the Charles, an area the size of modern France, Germany and Italy were united through one ruling class with the similar life organization and a strong commitment to an aristocratic, court sponsored architecture and supportive arts. As a gave the example from the previous chapter the architecture approach of this time could not count as very developed, they just combined their structure to already built structure. At the same time whit, the Islamic culture spreads the non-figuration art perspective started to see but the old Islamic religious perspective not influenced by this, as we can see the inside of the church , the even painted their figures in the gold background for representing their holiness.
However all architecture style and development have connections between each other, passing from Corigliano to Romanesque was not smooth or uninterrupted.
After the Charles death, the balance in eırpe had changed, with the attacks of Muslim Corilagin empire could not stay longer and collapse After this collapse, from England, France, Germany to Italy every culture follows different path against to new powers and attacks came from Vikings and Muslims.
Wood and earth were basic materials of defense construction against to invasion and their technique included palisades, bastions, and moats both dry and water- filled. Stone construction is, on the whole, a latter, Romanesque practice. Examples of this defense constructions are; The great donjons of Loches and Beaugency, Norman keeps such a Castle HEningham in Essex.
By the time, Military construction was all-pervasive and it was growing more sophisticated. The once towerless curtains now recovered the cadenced look of Aurelian walls of Rome and the legendary land walls of Constantinople. Then, the improvement of old continental roads, with the opening up of new ones, presumes regional thinking. Later on these changes Churches started to gain more power and become somewhere prestige, for the sick of religious rulers started built bridges and streets by following the motto; “prepare your way to heaven”.
As we can understand, the political and economic recovery in Europe that should be stressed in distinguishing the spectacular bloom of religious architecture in the eleventh century. Monumental architecture denotes prosperity thus, new villages were established by enterprising lords or abbots in accordance with set plans. The pattern of houses might be a regular grid, or else a linear strip of house and plot along a newly constructed road, with the field arranged in herringbone fashion on either side of this spine. Some of these settlements in time would grow into towns.
To sum up, the story of architecture in the eleventh century, then, is much more than the rise and triumph of the Romenesque church. This time’s history of architecture should be considered not only around church and religious but also around inns, castles bridges, hospices, rural enclaves, roads as well.
Religious architecture has occurred around the fixture of daily existence. People arranged their life around their beliefs. Furthermore, along the pilgrimage routes people are colonizing efforts of monastic orders; but it also embedded in its local tradition trough materials, favored forms and themes; its conservative or progressive spirit. We could not say that there is a certain type of Romanesque church. But in general, Romensque architecture have; massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy pillars, groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading. ıf we examine also the interiors of given example by kostof, we also can observe arches applied in the outside of churh also seen the inside of churh as well. Facade of buildings also has a connection with the organization of interirior. While heavy beams and cloumns used in these churches they also use timber for giving the shape of arch and vault.
When we turn back and examine that time architecture we also clarly see that there is clasiscal order rational organization combination of new and old. They used the basic principles of past and developed it the reason of that we should consider Florance and Paris as abirthplace of the renaissance.