Arch 221 Assignment 11

While we are coming to the end of the book, this week we assigned to read three chapter which are by the following order; “The Renaissance: Ideal and Fad”, Spain and The New World, İstanbul, and Venice.

In this post, ı will focus on the first chapter.

After The ıslmaic culture realize and spread. It takes its part from the already exists culture. Such as some of the monuments are displaced and some of the building interiors, exterior or both ways are adopted in Muslim culter.

Stitched Panorama

Like Gothic chapel turned into the mosque of Cordoba.The arcades of the multisided interior and the reverberating visitas were cut off. Without, the cruciform domed mass tore its way through the owpitched roofs that rippled like a gentle swell across the building, from the court to the Mihrab walls.

Three different architectural styles were abroad in Spain around 15th B.c: Gothic, a hybrid local connection of ornamental motifs applied without regard to the structure of the building, and the newly fashionable design that unearthed and modernized the tradition of ancient Rome.The source of this third alternative is Italy. After the Brunelleschi’s studies and improvements. The Gothic approach had changed. Gothic architecture functioned according to an abstract system of proportions. Individual elements of the building had no fixed ratios within themselves or with respect to overall measurements, but rather depended on internal correlations that followed from initial geometric choices.These entrenched Gothic habits were now no longer exist. The architect the building and put it down on a unitary plan, drawn to measure. From this, a building force could proceed to erect the structure without architect’s supervision.

After the some development in the architecture, we can say that architect, armed with the science of linear perspective and new mathematics, steeped in the knowledge of ancient sources, become the master of universal law that applies on its 9ea1fd8ad812092e93bb4b3e6965dad3structure. while the political diagram is unambiguous, we can give the Piccolomini palace as the example of the larges structure, in the plane or form the air. The church has the central place of honor. The town hall, vestigial and politely tucked in one corner, is a symbolic gesture. The remaining palace, the bishops residence stands as it does primarily for the sake of the design. At the visual level, seen form within the piazza, the papal block conceals most of itself in order to assure bilateral symmetry. the main entrance shifts for relating and centering the square.Also, the proportions of buildings defined and locked in place by the intervening space and its grid. As we can clearly observe the foundation of rational and proportional order in this structure and related with that we can say that this approach shows itself in this organization very well.

As ı can understand from this book ı can define Piazza as it is a long span, crossing point of the street that defines the public place. As we can see in the other culture, it is some way works as a market place or gathering point as well.The Palazzo Piccolomini, an urban four -square mass in the Florentine manner that was raised over older houses, had also reservoir on the roof to collect rainwater and distribute it trough iron pipes. So we can understand that the structures have its own function not served only for its built aim but also gain some self-function which can serve publicly or etcetera.

After ı read some information and the related examples about Brunelleschi and Alberti, we can notice the different architectural approach of them. Alberti considered columns ornamental, unlike Brunelleschi Who had used them as a load-bearing and space-defining components. Stability and definition for Alberti are the functions of walls. Architecture has two elements that bring about aesthetic satisfaction: beauty and ornaments. Beauty is innate. It is shaped around proportion, ratio, harmony and et-Cetera. On the other hand, an ornament is added on. This is where the column and its derivation, the pilaster, come in.

While ı ending this post ı also want to lastly mention about mannerism. Within the given examples from Italy and Spain, the writer explains mannerism as a post-medieval cyle. As ı can understand, ı can explain the mannerisms the way of having style in art. Also the reason of relation within the art and architecture, Architecture also influenced by that.In addition, we ca also say this period is the representation of the high renaissance.

ARCH 221 First Draft Of Final Assignment

In my Eymir peninsula design, ı want to design a path which leads people experiences all peninsula with different ways, so I designed a close loop which occurs between different located common spaces that are specialized for different people capacity.While people experience the land with my approach, my path creates a transition between different characteristic open spaces and close spaces. The reason of the relation that ı designed in my path, ı decided my concept and element as transition and corridor.

The corridor as definitions; 1.A passage covered walk, or avenue between two places(obsolete),2. The main passage in a large building, upon which in its course many apartments open.The reason that ı used corridor for creating a passage between two spaces in my project, first definitions more accommodate to my design, so that my approach to this element will be in that term.

Corridor etymology based in the latin “ Androné which means signified a passage or long gallery between the walls of two houses for a rain to pass. In the 14th century, there were an old Italian term Corridore derived from the Latin current referred to way on, top of fortified city walls with the similar meanings in English, French and German “Curridore”, an English world dating from 17th century, means a covered passage or walk between two places. When we examine the word of the corridor it etymology is not based on very ancient time but related to my approach to a corridor,ı trace the function of the corridor before the that the called as “corridor”.

According to examples from “History of Architecture Settings and Rituals” by Spiro Kostof, the architectural element of the corridor has been developing the preliminary settlements. Of course, it was not the same with today but it was built around the same basic manners. Indeed, related with some recent research, corridor lost its meaning in architecture and increasing as metaphorical in these days.

In the ancient times, preliminary architectural proposes were being alive and building a shelter. After people were settled, their life condition had changed. After the first city settlement started to rise, by the time the outdoor and the indoor organization started to occur. Related with my examination, the elements of corridor shows itself very different time and cultures. For example; in neolithic age -Lion gate in the citadel of Hattusas (1650-1200 B.C), ancient courtyards, halls and et-Cetera. The reason that corridor has a rich history, ı am going to examine the architectural element of corridor starting from the neolithic age to today showing its example in the timeline in terms of structurally and conceptually.

By, S. (2014). Corridor. Venezia: Marsilio.

ARCH 221 Assignmet 9

This week we assigned to read chapter 13 and 14. This chapters’ name are by fallowing order; “THE BIRTH OF NATIONS: EUROPE AFTER CHARLES” and “FRENCH MANNER”.

In this post, ı am going to share my opinions only about the 13th chapter.

As ı mention previous post of this course, Europinion cultures started to change and also in the same time power balance in Europe had been changing too. Carolingian Europe was the third sphere. Under the Charles, an area the size of modern France, Germany and Italy were united through one ruling class with the similar life organization and a strong commitment to an aristocratic, court sponsored architecture and supportive arts. As a gave the example from the previous chapter the architecture approach of this time could not count as very developed, they just combined their structure to already built structure. At the same time whit, the Islamic culture spreads the non-figuration art perspective started to see but the old Islamic religious perspective not influenced by this, as we can see the inside of the church , the even painted their figures in the gold background for representing their holiness.

However all architecture style and development have connections between each other, passing from Corigliano to Romanesque was not smooth or uninterrupted.

After the Charles death, the balance in eırpe had changed, with the attacks of Muslim Corilagin empire could not stay longer and collapse After this collapse, from England, France, Germany to Italy every culture follows different path against to new powers and attacks came from Vikings and Muslims.

Wood and earth were basic materials of defense construction against to invasion and their technique included palisades, bastions, and moats both dry and water- filled. Stone construction is, on the whole, a latter, Romanesque practice. Examples of this defense constructions are; The great donjons of Loches and Beaugency, Norman keeps such a Castle HEningham in Essex.

By the time, Military construction was all-pervasive and it was growing more sophisticated. The once towerless curtains now recovered the cadenced look of Aurelian walls of Rome and the legendary land walls of Constantinople. Then, the improvement of old continental roads, with the opening up of new ones, presumes regional thinking. Later on these changes Churches started to gain more power and become somewhere prestige, for the sick of religious rulers started built bridges and streets by following the motto; “prepare your way to heaven”.

As we can understand, the political and economic recovery in Europe that should be stressed in distinguishing the spectacular bloom of religious architecture in the eleventh century. Monumental architecture denotes prosperity thus, new villages were established by enterprising lords or abbots in accordance with set plans. The pattern of houses might be a regular grid, or else a linear strip of house and plot along a newly constructed road, with the field arranged in herringbone fashion on either side of this spine. Some of these settlements in time would grow into towns.

To sum up, the story of architecture in the eleventh century, then, is much more than the rise and triumph of the Romenesque church. This time’s history of architecture should be considered not only around church and religious but also around inns, castles bridges, hospices, rural enclaves, roads as well.

Religious architecture has occurred around the fixture of daily existence. People arranged their life around their beliefs. Furthermore, along the pilgrimage routes people are colonizing efforts of monastic orders; but it also embedded in its local tradition trough materials, favored forms and themes; its conservative or progressive spirit. We could not say that there is a certain type of Romanesque church. But in general, Romensque architecture have; massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy pillars, groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading. ıf we examine also the interiors of given example by kostof, we also can observe arches applied in the outside of churh also seen the inside of churh as well. Facade of buildings also has a connection with the organization of interirior. While heavy beams and cloumns used in these churches they also use timber for giving the shape of arch and vault.

When we turn back and examine that time architecture we also clarly see that there is clasiscal order rational organization combination of new and old. They used the basic principles of past and developed it the reason of that we should consider Florance and Paris as abirthplace of the renaissance.

ARCH 221- Towards Final Assignment

This week we have the first draft our final assignment. For this assignment we propose an architectural concept or an architectural element that relates to our individual project in our studio.FullSizeRender (11)

This proposal and the connection of our design and the historical connection of this element are the of course the ingredients of our assignment.

So now ı am starting to researching and ı will only post the fınal phase of this assignment in my blog . So keep following me 🙂

ARCH 221 Assignment 8


This week I am going to examine the chapter 11 and 12 from Koskof’s book History of Architecture.Setting and Rituals.

The 11th chapter name is : The Triumph Of Christ and the 12th chapter name is : The Mediterranean Early Middle Ages.

In this post  I am going to examine the 12th chapter.

In 5th B.c Roman and Greek cultures have been already spreading trough the Mediterranean and around that time the new spreading thing was occurs which called Islamic culture . Islamic culture starts to spread from arabic land to mediterranean which is entirely different approach with already spread  culture from europe to mediterranean.

5-6 century was dark times for western civilization. The german emperors and the islamic culture has been effecting their life and in some way refunction their cities. The decline of western cities would probably have come about even without the agency of barbarian. As we can understand from the example of east shows that under Byzantine rule the great cities lost their independence and civic excellence.

As far as what was being built-in the West between the fall of the Roman Empire and the rise of Charlemagne,we should not expect to see the same contained scale or the same mechanized efficiency and production that governed Roman building operations. State brick kilns, the transport of foreign marbles, inexhaustible slave army labor were things of the past. Patron age now developed on the Chuch but ne exclusively. The religious approach was all over issue in that time while we are seeking the architecture history we should examine this time as a light of that. The buildings in the west part of mediterranean, now on primary religious. the focal point of cities  was now cathedral complex. Thus, when  we examine that time architecture,we mostly seen  basilicas, cathedral,churches and etc.

The church were rectangular halls with or without apse and transepts. As we notice the wooden architecture was more prevalent now and frame construction common to both churches and palaces as well. No matter the wooden architecture step out in that time, stone architecture and its techniques not forgotten. old columns, capitals and stone blocks were regularly reused in new contexts and these suggestive spoils must have been seen as a sign of an unremitting if hard-pressed tradition.

The abstraction of substance is all too easily credited to barbarian taste.On the other hand, the roman approach the structure contains the art and in some level ornament( higher than human scale ).so after the barbarian arrived this roman cities the approach to structure turned to small-scale ornament and treatment of barbarian include human scale logic and tendency to abstraction.As we can exempli the San Pedro Dela nave church, the transition from ornament to abstraction did not happen right away.

The record of the so-called Dark Ages should modify our view of the Carolingian episode in Europe without diminishing its great importance.As we notice in the  architecture of Carolingian, patrons of buildings shared aesthetic and functional aims to create broadly consistent shapes and scales of churches, monastic complexes,palaces and etc. For example, like in the basilicas of Carolingian architecture, structures had; monumental western entrances, towers, and interiors decorated with marbles, carved capitals, and standardized interior arrangements provided a new and often-consistent frame that encouraged standardized liturgies inside.For examplifying the Carolingian architecture Kostof gives the example of church, basilicas and etc. for make us understanding both interior and exterior organization and differences with Roman constructions.


While he ending this chapter, he examine the islamic culture and muslim buildings. Islamic culture is influenced from arabic culture and while it spreads trough the lands,  the signs and traditions of arabic culture is also spreads with it. for example,  the linear characteristics market place called bazaars. Muslims mostly adopted their religious to the land and non-muslim buildings. To illustrate; te rectangular shell of pagan temple precinct with corner towers governed the shape of the great mosque of Damascus.

As we can understand all Koskof explaining about both islamic and christian structures, architecture is developed around the religious and gain a function with it.In some period and region with adopting , other  time and region with changing, destroying or covering.  But I can clearly understand after this examples and the information given with this chapter the real thing behind that the history of architecture should examine in its own period.