This week we are reading to 9 and 10 chapter of Kostof book. The chapters name by following order is; “Rome Caput Mundi” and ” The World At Large; Roman Concurrences”.
In this post ı will mention about the ninth chapter the reaoson of that is more appealed to me. Koskof started to this chapter by explaining the early Roman architecture and the specialties of cultural and geographic specialities of italy and of course Rome.
Like most of the Italian cities Rome also shows irregular city form before the Greek urbanism is effected on the their city planning.After that influence, Rome applied orthographic city plan as well. But Romans has adopted the city plan with their arrangement such as; They arrange the streets’ axes to getting cross where the public place built, second arrangement was applying the block system the appropriate way for their city not rectangular but as a square city blocks.
As well as all we know Roman architecture is well-developed and of course this development in some way is influence by greek architecture with the bond of their geographical position. One of the richness of the Roman Architectures are Arches . The expression of architecture system in three dimensions in the encapsulation of interior space. Extended outward in a straight line, the arch produces a barell or tunnel vault, that is curved ceiling that is built on two parallel walls and bridges the rectilinear lower space define.
The latin origin word of “Vault” means to turn about, the roll. Vaulted spaces of any shape are different form than rectilinear spaces. However the experience of rectilinear and square spaces have different specialities the structural design of the square space is also more difficult in the way it against to force of gravity while it also carrying the loads.
One of the important city of İtaly is Pompei . Pompei is stellated the volcanic are that is also mouth of the river Sorano. Also this city is very close to the original greek colony -Neapolis-Naples. The reason of the interaction between the colony and the city ;Pompei has importance on the architectural history wich has the shows specialties that across to culture which are; italic north and greek south. Consequence of this across, architecture of this area shows hybrid forms and techniques.
The house pattern of Rome were a good examples. The design of house applies to the way that creates an axis of alternately light and dark spaces which was flanked by symmetrically arranged rooms. and this organization is also creates contrast with greek house obviously.
As we can observe the organization of apartment type of buildings and the public spaces ,Roman got the basic principles of greek architecture and contribute their aspects and developed it. For example; One of the known model of -public buildng-forum is Hellenistic Agora. The roman contributions of this agora organization are; the strong sense of axial organization which we also notice in the arrangement of the common family houses and the second contribution is total enclosure that is, the preference for interirorized and controlled public spaces.
Later pages of this chapter kostof also mentions about the famous roman bath by comparing Hellenistic bath and another famous structure Masion Carree by mentions the religious approach in roman architecture to of course comparing to greek temple and believes as well. As we can see all the structure of roman they use the basic principle of structure that in some ways got from Greek’s but they also apply their architectural knowledge like arranging the light and shadow condition or creating wider spaces without using columns and etc.
Another most significant differences between greek architecture and the roman architecture is the form and the organization of their building as we can see the ceiling of roman temple or the theater or auditorium of roman like Colosseum they use the square shape rather than the edges shape that greek used. and the Other differences is applying the organization of columns and the open-close spaces they designed their structure the way that doing less interfere to spaces romans just defined spaces with columns not bored it or narrow it that we can also observe this principle form palace of Rome to theater or temples as well.