We are still reading and discussing the book called “History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals”, by Spiro Kostof. This week we read chapter eight which is called : The Hellenistic Realm.
Koskof, Startes this chapter by explaning the differences between Classical Greek and Hellenistic approach from art to architecture. Mostly in Classical approach, values based on the respect on of the single individual and it also represented moral entility. Even classical heros is all ethical.On the other hand The Hellenistic hero, is not the instrument of choice but its victim. İt shows all Hellenistic specialities they were melodramatic and dramatic like its represent theater to their viewer.
As we know The Hellenistic style was started with Alexander the Great.Befor ethe Hellenistic approach İn 31 b.c architecture was neither static nor uniform across the immense territory involved. But in Hellenistic time, Architecture was also shows dramatic preference like the way of using staircase. .
As we observe in Bassae , Detail of architecture mostly for the sake of expressive effects. Also this temple is the first surviving instance of a new architectural order, The Corinthian And the other interesting speciality of this temple is its cella, it is impressively centralized,continuous with the impact of its axial perspective towards the cult statue. Actually the traditional purpose of cella colonnades was to help support the roof. As these were pushed out toward the cella walls the central span become too broad to be bridged in store efficiently. The architects restored to metal enforcement and the burden of the roof was shifted more and more to the cella walls.
As we see in the Bassae temple the columns surrenders its structural reality for the sake of new visual effects. The classical unity of structure and appearance beginings to come apart in this way. To illustrates, with the changing order of column ,The corner problem becomes to occurs.
The Classical temples was self-contained and active. It stood in mid space a sculpture force complete only in relation to its surroundings, both natural and built which gave it scale and set in a dynamic relationship to the approaching worshiper. This vital experience was all-getting to the temple along an often irregular path, moving around it, reading it against distant landscape forms and proximate features of precinct.
The Hellenistic Temple tries to be complete in itself.It stage a certain sequence of effects within its own body, to be revealed to the user one.The studied of Hellenistic Temple extended to its setting as well. This often meant landscaping and terracing, porticoes enclosures and monumental stairways all arranges along sweeping axes.In deed,the axial layouts of classical periods changed in Hellenistic period the way; it is rarely dogmatic and symmetry becomes less than perfect.
Actually the grid of Classical approach is still valid in Hellenistic style. Furthermore,at the same time a new school of planning introduced a more dynamic organization for hilly sites based on vertical, three dimensional alliance of major building groups as well.
The other important thing about Hellenistic style, the approach of buildings-house-. Their structural approach was included lots of various luxuriant ornaments.Such as; highlighting, colour perspective vista. The idea behind that Hellenistic architectural approach was freedom in pictorial arts.
While the writer ends this chapter he also mentions,Pergamon and its architectural and artificial specialities and how its shows experisions of Hellenistic style.