This week we read chapters 5 and 6 from the same book by Spiro Kostof. These chapters name are ; chapter 5- The Aegean And Asia Minor , and chapter 6- The Greek Temple And “Barbarian” Alternatives.
Asia Minor, with different words Anatolia,end it has been first homeland for European societies. Starting with Çatalhöyük from Neolithic Age it has been a connection between European and Asia. Their structural technic is still persist so that some of their archeological structures are even stay stands today.
One of the most known bronze age city is capital city pf Hittites ; Hattusas.By analazing Hattusas we learning some information about Hittite environment. As writer mentions the strength of their architecture was to accept the raw design of the land as the better part of building. Actually, Hattusas settles on a spur of rocky hills at the end of a wide and fertile valley. These rocky landscape provides a some kind of defense and intimidation without solely handmade. The walls of city follow the land counter.
Another thing about Hittite architecture that they did not know column. The standards portico on piers always defined one or two, in some exceptions three, sides of the court and even then not uniformly. The court means four-sided divergent design.
As Koskof mentions, Hittite temples like Mesopotamian’s and New Kingdom Eygpt’s, they were economic.They owned vast estate that they let to farmers for a ground rent in kind. . Their city settlement should not be considered as irregular , outline. it should be considered as pictured esque. Actually theri city order not only have organic tangled city plan bases like UR. They had rational order, they built their structure according to getting together geometrically ordered functional elements in a composition.
The other important settlements in Asia minor are Beycesultan and Troy. Beycesultan which is located close to Meander river, had rectangular court design with surrounding gallery or a series of balconies; supported on wooden columns. Furthermore, At Beycesultan the first stone were laid on bedding of tree trunk lined up traversly to the direction of the wall.
The other settlement were in Troy-further north of Meander river, at the entrance to the Dardanelles, with a mound called Hissarlık long identified the city. This city had three supermised levels of occupation. Also city is developed outside of site.
Troy VI was the most prosperous phase of citadel. It is main buildings were in formally arranged along the inner periphery of the walls, as in the layout of the citadel at Hattusas with which it is roughly contemporary.
Next encounter the megaron after Troy is Greek mainland. In deed, also next chapter is related with greek mainland. Before writer skip to next chapter also mentions Mycenaean and Minoans Tyrins and Knossos. He analysis their structure in the light of their time period and culture. To illustrate he ends this chapter with saying how bronze age over. And asia minor spread into europe and Aegean islands.
The sixth chapter which is called The Greek Temple And “Barbarian” Alternatives.
Author in the beginning of chapter explains the meaning of barbarian as alien and not quite up to greek standards. Bronze age cities in Greece, settlement structures centered around rural life standards. In the end of the bronze age iron was considered as chief substances of weapons and tools. Moreover, the new metal become a physical symbol of descent.
In that time, public architecture was start to become more simple and uniform scaled. Nothing like the Mycenaean places was being attempted. In Crete and Mycenae the priesthood was clearly subordinate. There were no major temples.there were only Altars and small shriness.
First, the basis for the mature mainland temples is the Mycenaean megaron. the most known temples from ancient Greece are Olympia in southern Greece and Apollo at Delphi.
Writer also pointed out three distinguish overlapping stages in the evolution of the greek temple. which are ;
- At the first stage, Chapels are prevalent for the obscure period following Dorian occupation of mainland Greece. Their basic form as we can see theri structure creates for function of local deites’s house. but still some of these structure includes cult room in their hearth.
- Second stage is more like experimental stage. Famous Pantheon belongs to this stage. Size and style of its structure is different from old structure and it is more related with Greece belief as well.
- In last stage we observing to shifting materials. Terra cotta were starting to use as a new material of roof. ALso style of using stone shows some changes too.
For greek architects technic and construction was so important. Their way of using geometric form in their structure and their way of using / adopting cloumns both interior and exterior were so well designed and well-built as well. They applied Doric and Ionic order in their structure.
- The Doric order reached its pinnacle of perfection in the Parthenon.
- One of the earliest and most striking examples of the Ionic order is the tiny Temple to Athena Nike at the entrance to the Athens Acropolis
When the writer ends this chapter he lastly mentions about palaces and he compares to palace’s architectural specialities with temples as well.