In this week we assigned to read to cheapters- second and trid- of book by Spiro Kostof and the chapters are called The Cave and The Sky: Stone Age Europe(chapter 2) and The Rise of The Cıty: Architectural ın Western Asıa.
Second chapter mention the begıng of archıtecture , need of sheltered space. As writer says we are accustomed to thinking of architecture as shelter ; a home to live in. But indeed, architectural is more than protective shells.Actually for defining placesin the light of ritual actions , it does not meaning of limiting spces in tree dimention or enlose areas as it covers spaces. It meanss defining spaces with only necessary limitations.
People in early stone age, use caves to living, protect from bad effect of nature( wind cold or rain etc. ) or animals. As we see the examples in France Lascaux Cave people live in the cave at bout 400,00 years ago. They use natural ting with the purpose of their need as an architectural way. They are not able to create a structure or they do not attempted as we know. On the contrary, the difficulties in natural architecture of each cave were scrupulously respected and the artistic skillfully set out to complement the peculiar properties of the cave. They make some art works into caves.Actually, they were using art as a toll of expression. They painted frightent figure which are animal like; bull ,horse, lions and etc.
After, with discovering fire, people developed theri living statues. They started to cook soil-terra cota and they crate a huts like the most ancient example; Terra Amata in Monte Carlo.
In the late of Stone Age, with the climate changed, they way of living and also architecture has changed. In may places on the planet, Europe and the Near East among them they settled and turned to farming and animal husbandary.. They started to use systamatic basisis of food production.
While these were happing, archiitecture as it needs to responded to change in social behiviour. In late stone age, the settlers change the place they live and they start to live in small indivual houses of timber and mud. The timber posts stood in holes dug in the ground and wre braced at the top by roof beams. Boughs wrere woven through the posts to complete the walls of house, the gaps were filled in with mud. So as we see, they started to create basic architecture with usuing basic elements to create a structure in this time.
While writer explains to develpment of architecture trough the stonage , he gives lots of example from Europe like;
- Tombs; Neolithic stone tombs wrer designed as closed spaces. The basic form, but not the commonest is a simple boxlike chamber made up or several upright slabs for walling, with a more or less flat stone on top.
- Temples; The temples of taht time was concentrated on encolosed space furnished and decoreted in accordance with needs of an intricate cult.
- Monumnets; the monuments are built as temple for different faith. Their aim was involve with the sun and moon. One of the most fomous example of monument belong Stone age is Stonehenge.
As it the Le corbusier said after saw the megathlit tombs of France- deprived of their blanket of earth and batteed by time- and got inspriration for Ronchanmp chape.l The thing behind architecture is same it is only developed within time to fulfill demands as designed with to tool of their own time.
In third chapter which is called; The Rise OF the City: Architecture in Western Asia, first he is explain what it is urban and urban revolution. With his words, to be civilization, to be urban; is “the art of living in towns”. The cities, are an involved organisms under constant changes.. The city presents us a new aspect of living environment. The development of urbanism is differ from architectural development starting with stone age.
With Neolithic Revolution people were started to framing settled life hunting baked soil and produced their need such as knife, bowl,jewellery and etc. with these development they started to live together not in same roof , by sharing some mutual areas but having own individual house. they starting to coming against to natural beast- animals-together and also farming together. they thought it is easy to living this way. so with this way living together being civilized is starting. So the first cities were born. One of the example of urbanisim is Çatalhöyük. People from Çatalhöyük in 9,00 years ago were setteled together as a city as we see in archeologic monuments.
In that times, a city presupposed a concentrated population, beyond intimate congress of farming homesteads and tribal families as well. With the time pass,( near the end of neolithic age) people start to life developed cities such as Nippur. This city not only includes individual house or common spaces but also has some temples and ziggurat as well. In Mesopotamia, ziggurat are made of Sun-baked bricks which is made up the comet with facings of fired bricks on the outside . Basicly is ziggurast are temple complex which has storage , some workshops and temples inside itself.
With the cities developed beside storage, temples, farmlands,shared area or individual home we also see as urban places, city walls, some kind of castle and etc.